Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain

Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.. to its ligand-binding feature, the activity of SRA in lipid metabolism, host defense [5, 6], atherosclerosis [7], and pathogen recognition [8, 9] have been extensively studied. We have demonstrated that SRA plays a role as an immunosuppressive regulator in restricting dendritic cell-induced immune responses during vaccination against tumor [10C15], suggesting that development of small molecule inhibitors for SRA may provide therapeutic potential in immunotherapy of cancer. Cidofovir (Vistide) Two natural products, namely sennoside B (Fig. 1) and tannic acid, were previously identified as SRA inhibitors by Mamula [16]. Particularly, sennoside B, a macromolecular natural product, showed dose dependent binding to the SRA [16]. We subsequently used the deconstruction-reconstuction-elaboration approach to identify critical molecular component for its biological activity [17, 18]. Through this Cidofovir (Vistide) deconstruction strategy, a new lead compound, namely rhein or cassic acid (Fig. 1), was identified [19]. Rhein is a known natural product isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal plant rhubarb [20]. Cidofovir (Vistide) Compared with sennoside B, rhein showed a higher inhibition activity of SRA in rescuing T cell activation. Open in a separate window Figure 1 The design of three rhein analogs. Herein, rhein was further deconstructed in order to define the necessary functional groups in this molecule. In this process, each of three functional groups on the anthraquinone skeleton was removed one by one and three rhein analogs were obtained. One of them (compound 1, Fig. 1) is commercially available. Compound 1 was known as a natural product, namely danthron. Danthron was also isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, rhubarb [21]. The other two compounds (compound 2 and 3, Fig. 1) were synthesized through multi-step chemical synthesis (compound 2, Scheme 1; compound 3, Scheme 2). Then, the biological activity of these three analogs were tested and related docking study based on SRA cysteine rich domain was conducted. Open in a separate window Scheme 1 Synthesis of compound 2.20 Regents and conditions: (a) TFA, Hexamethylenetetramine, reflux, 90C95 C; (b) Diethyl succinate, NaH, Toluene, EtOH, N2, 55 C; (c) Ac2O, NaOAc, N2, reflux; (d) Ammonium cerium(IV) nitrate, acetonitrile, rt; (e) Buta-1,3-dien-1-yl-acetate, EtOH, reflux; (f) 10% NaOH. Open in a separate window Scheme 2 Synthesis of compound 3.21, 22 Regents and conditions: (a) TMSCl, TEA, ZnCl2, Hydroquinone, benzene, 4 h, 70 C; (b) HOAc, CrO3, Benzene, reflux 40 h; (c) 11, THF, rt, 40 h; (d) i. Ac2O, Pyridine; ii. CrO3, HOAC, Ac2O. First, to test the activity of these three analogs in rescuing T cell activation, -Galactosidase (-Gal) assays was used with B3Z T cells. As we reported previously [19], -Gal was encoded by the structure of lacZ and lacZ came from gene [22]. Once B3Z cells were activated, gene in cells would be triggered and produce lacZ and -Gal. In this experiment, anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies were used to induce the activation of B3Z T cells and as a mark of -Gal increase. Besides, SRA protein was used as an immunosuppressive inhibitor of T cells. As our forward report [23], anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies could efficiently activate B3Z T cells, induce the increase of -Gal, and the activation of T cells induced by anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies was distinctly reduced by the presence of SRA protein (Fig. 2). When B3Z T cells were treated with rhein analogs, the suppressive effect of SRA protein was evidently reversed (Fig. 2). Compared to the control, compound 1, 2, and 3 displayed Cidofovir (Vistide) a distinct activity of activating T cells during reversion of the suppression of SRA protein. Compound 1 showed the most significant activity. Compound 3 showed similar potency compared with that of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies in activating T cells. Based on these, compound 1 and 3 were chosen to carry on for further studies. Open in a separate window Figure 2 -Gal assay of rhein derivatives in T cell activation. B3Z T cells were seeded 2 106/well in 12-well plate in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation combined with SRA protein and compound 1, 2, and Mouse Monoclonal to V5 tag 3 (50 M), respectively, for 5 h. Cells without any treatment served as control. -Gal assay was performed to detect the activation of gene promoter after incubation at 37 C for 1 h. The experiments were repeated at least three times with similar results. *, 0.05; **, 0.01. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was then used to further test these two compounds in antagonizing the immunosuppressive activity of CD11b+Ly6ChighLy6G? myeloid-derived.

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