and Xiao and Kai  that one or more hydroxyl groups in the B-ring of flavonoids enhanced the binding affinities to proteins. compare all possible pairs of means of a group of berries extracts were performed by StudentCNewmanCKeuls method based on the studentised data range. and Chl is an indicator of the functional pigments. The ratios of chlorophylls were the following: 0.68, 1.17, and 2.55 for gooseberries (GOOSEB), cranberries (CRAN), and blueberries (BLUEB), respectively. The ratio of total chlorophylls to total carotenoids is an indicator of the greenness of plants (Fig.?1). Table 1 Bioactive compounds in water, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether extracts of gooseberries (polyphenols, catechin equivalent, gallic acid equivalent, flavonoids, flavanols, not determined, gooseberries (cranberries (blueberries (ethyl acetate, diethyl ether Open in a separate window Fig. 1 Chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in berries. Values are means SD: 7.15, 0.48, and 0.01 for Chl a in BLUEB, CRAN, and GOOSEB, respectively; 2.45, 0.43, and 0.01 for Chl b in BLUEB, CRAN, and GOOSEB, respectively; 10.08, 0. 86, and 0.12 for Chl a + b in BLUEB, CRAN, and GOOSEB, respectively; 1.25, 0. 34, and 0.08 for Xant + Car in BLUEB, CRAN, and GOOSEB, respectively. chlorophyll, xanthophylls, carotenes, gooseberries, cranberries, blueberries It was mentioned earlier that the main purpose was to compare gooseberry with other berries in order to find out if its bioactivity is on the same level as in other kinds of berry. Therefore, the contents of the bioactive compounds and AA were determined and compared with widely consumed blueberries and cranberries. A number of reviewed articles show that the main bioactive compounds determining the nutritional quality BPTES of berries are polyphenols, anthocyanins, and flavonoids [1, 9]. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are important in the composition of berries. The ratio of total chlorophylls to total carotenoids was 2.15, 2.47, and 8.67 for gooseberries, cranberries, and blueberries, respectively. The two ratios were in the range which shows that the berries were grown and collected at optimal growing conditions . The obtained contents of chlorophylls and carotenoids were in acceptable range, showing their sensitivity to seasonal variation in climatic conditions . Our data can be compared with other reports , where different carotenoids in seabuck thorn berries increased in concentration during ripening and comprised from 120 to 1 1,425?g/g DW of total carotenoids (1.5C18.5?mg/100?g of FW), depending on the cultivar, harvest time, and year. The content of chlorophyll can act as a marker of the degree of ripening. We investigated the properties of quercetin, the major phenolic phytochemical present in berries, in aqueous media using UV spectroscopy, fluorometry, and ESI-mass spectrometry. As was declared in Results and Discussion, the contents of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, and flavanols) in three different extracts was determined and compared, and the significantly highest amounts were in water extract of blueberries. Gooseberries showed a moderate amount of bioactive compounds. Our results were in agreement with others, showing that water extracts of blueberries contain high amounts BPTES of polyphenols . The amount of phenolics for blueberry and cranberry was reported as 261C585 and 315?mg/g FW and for flavonoids as 50 and 157?mg/g FW [36, 37]. The ESI-MS in negative ion mode (Table?2; Fig.?2a) of water extracts differs between berries. The water extract of gooseberry (Table?2; Fig.?2Aa) showed that the molecular ion at 190.79 corresponded to quinic acid. Oppositely, BPTES cranberry (Table?2; Fig.?2Ab) water extract was BPTES characterized by chlorogenic acid of the [M-H]? deprotonated molecule (353) and the ion corresponding to the deprotonated quinic acid (191), which was consistent with Sun et al. (2007). Blueberry water extract (Table?2; Fig.?2c) demonstrated a peak at 404.85 (piceatannol 3-212.6. The spectra of blueberry differ from gooseberry and cranberry with one peak at 366.9. In gooseberry and cranberry extracts, one common peak appeared at 444.4, but gooseberry extract is characterized by the BPTES peak of gallic acid and in cranberry only quercetin is found. Table 2 Mass spectral data (molecular ion and the major fragment ions of polyphenols extracted from berries) gooseberries, cranberries, and blueberries in negative ion mode. Phenolic compounds were identified at based on the mass spectra data The recorded spectra were in the same scale (in the range between 100 and 600?values dry weight, 2,2-diphenyl-cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, -carotene linoleate assay, IGFBP2 gooseberries (cranberries (blueberries (ethyl acetate, diethyl ether Table 4 Statistically significant differences between the content of bioactive compounds in different extracts of berries by StudentCNewmanCKeuls multiple comparisons statberries,.
And more, hUC-MSC could reduce inflammatory response evidenced by downregulating the expression of inflammatory factor and infiltration of neutrophils. included in this published article and its supplementary information files. Abstract Background This study was designed to determine the effect of human umbilical cord multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hUC-MSC) on acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of spermatogenic cells. Method The testicular I/R rat model was established through 720 torsion for 1?h. hUC-MSC were intravenously injected 10?min before detorsion. Injury severity of spermatogenic cells was estimated by Johnsens score. The proliferating of recipient spermatogonia was measured by the immunostaining of antibodies against Ki67, and all germ cells were detected with DDX4 antibody. And recipient spermatogenesis was assessed by staining spermatozoa with lectin PNA. The levels of inflammatory factors were measured by real-time PCR. And the Selectin-E expression, neutrophil infiltration in the testes was detected by immunostaining. Germ cells apoptosis was tested by TUNEL assay and western blot. Furthermore, the oxidative stress was tested by reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels. In vitro, the condition medium (CM) of hUC-MSC was used to culture human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), so as to assess the paracrine effect of hUC-MSC on HUVECs. The β3-AR agonist 1 protein chip was used to measure the relative concentration of the secretory proteins in the CM of hUC-MSC. Result hUC-MSC greatly alleviated the testicular injury induced by testis I/R. The levels of proinflammatory factors were downregulated by hUC-MSC in vivo and in vitro. Neutrophil infiltration, ROS, and germ cell apoptosis in testicular tissues were greatly reduced in the group of hUC-MSC. Paracrine factors secreted by hUC-MSC including growth factors, cytokines, and anti-inflammatory cytokine were rich. Conclusion This study exhibited that intravenously injected hUC-MSC could safeguard the spermatogenic cells against I/R injury by reducing the inflammatory response, apoptosis, and acute oxidative injury. Paracrine β3-AR agonist 1 mechanism of hUC-MSC may contribute β3-AR agonist 1 to the protection of spermatogenic cells against I/R injury. Therefore, the present study provides a method for clinical treatment of attenuate I/R injury of spermatogenic cells. test. value lower than 0.05 was considered significant. Statistical analysis was assessed by SPSS software 22.0. Quantification of fluorescence intensity was utilized by ImageJ. Results hUC-MSC safeguard testes against I/R injury The histopathological images show that torsion-detorsion significantly damaged spermatogenic cells and reduced the Johnsens score, especially at day 3 after detorsion (Fig.?1a, b; Fig. S2). But the MSC-treated testes experienced a marked improvement in Johnsens score compared with that of control, suggesting that this hUC-MSC restore recipient spermatogenesis. Open in a separate window Fig. 1 hUC-MSC alleviated spermatogenic cells injury during testicular torsion and detorsion. a H&E staining of rat testicular tissues at day 1 (D1), day 3 (D3), day β3-AR agonist 1 7 (D7), and day 15 (D15) after detorsion. The testes performed torsion and detorsion without hUC-MSC grafts were used as control. The normal group was untreated animals. Scale bars, 100?m. b Johnsens score was evaluated at indicated day after hUC-MSC treatment. c Staining with PNA. Level bars, 200?m. d Quantification of seminiferous tubules made up of PNA-positive cells. Ten representative sections of the pattern of testes were counted. At least three rats were used in every group. Data were represented as mean??SEM. *value 0.001%) are shown in a heatmap. Low Rock2 concentrations are shown in blue, medium concentrations in white and high concentrations in reddish. Also, see Table S1. b KEGG pathway analysis of the soluble factors in the CM of hUC-MSC and hEF. Enriched pathways in the CM of hUC-MSCs that obtained a significant score (value 0.05). HEF represents hEF-CM. hUMSC presents hUC-MSC-CM Conversation Testicular torsion including rotation of the testis and twisting of the spermatic cord will cause testicular atrophy. An immediate detorsion operation is required to prevent testicular ischemic necrosis within β3-AR agonist 1 4 to 8?h.