This cross-sectional survey used data from the screening campaign to report on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis in this setting. Methods Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were used Mouse monoclonal to CD106(FITC) to screen for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) among people of 15years old. Mahama Camp, Eastern Rwanda. This cross-sectional survey used data from the screening campaign to report on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis in this setting. Methods Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) were used to screen for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) among people of 15years old. We calculated seroprevalence for HBsAg and anti-HCV by age and sex and also calculated age-and-sex adjusted risk ratios (ARR) for other possible risk factors. Results Of the 26,498 screened refugees, 1,006 (3.8%) and 297 (1.1%) tested positive for HBsAg and Anti-HCV, respectively. HBsAg was more prevalent among men than women and most common among people 25C54 years old. Anti-HCV prevalence increased with age group with no difference between sexes. After adjusting for age and sex, having a household contact with HBsAg was associated with 1.59 times higher risk of having HBsAg (95% CI: 1.27, 1.99) and having a household contact with anti-HCV was associated with 3.66 times higher risk of Anti-HCV (95% JAK-IN-1 CI: 2.26, 5.93). Self-reporting having HBV, HCV, liver disease, or previously screened for HBV and HCV were significantly associated with both HBsAg and anti-HCV, but RDT-confirmed HBsAg and anti-HCV statuses were not associated with each other. Other risk factors for HBsAg included diabetes (ARR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.59) and family history of hepatitis B (ARR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.56) and for anti-HCV included heart disease (ARR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.80) and history of surgery (ARR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.32). Conclusion Sero-prevalence and risks factors for hepatitis B and C among Burundian were comparable to that in the Rwandan general population. Contact tracing among household members of identified HBsAg and anti-HCV infected case may be an effective approach to targeted hepatitis screening given the high risk among self-reported cases. Expanded access to voluntary testing may be needed to improve access to hepatitis treatment and care in other refugee settings. Introduction Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections are the leading causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related deaths globally . Although effective curable treatments are increasingly available, most people remain unaware of their hepatitis status until symptoms appear . Asia and Africa are the two continents most affected by viral hepatitis infections , with sub-Saharan Africa having an estimated 6.1% prevalence of HBsAg  and overall 2.9% prevalence for hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV) . In Rwanda a recent population-based study revealed the prevalence of HBsAg to be 2.0% and the prevalence of anti-HCV to be 1.2% among people 15C64 years old . In response to the viral hepatitis burden, Rwanda established a national hepatitis program in 2011 with the first viral hepatitis guidelines disseminated in 2015 . These guidelines were followed by the launch of a five-year HCV elimination JAK-IN-1 plan in 2018, which was associated with increasing access to free viral hepatitis screening and treatment services accessible for Rwandans . Rwanda, like many other African countries, hosts a large number of refugee populations. However, refugees were not initially included in Rwandas national hepatitis program. In Europe and United states, refugee populations have been reported to have elevated risk of viral hepatitis compared to permanent residents of their host country. This risk is often attributed to poor living conditions during migration and resettlement [9C11]. However, it is also plausible that the higher risk of hepatitis B and C among immigrants and refugees may be primarily associated with differences in the prevalence of hepatitis between their host country and their country of origin rather [12, 13]. In December 2019, the Rwandan Ministry JAK-IN-1 of Health (MoH) approved inclusion of refugees as part of the national hepatitis elimination plan and this was followed by a mass screening and treatment campaign initiated in the Mahama refugee camp; the largest camp in Rwanda hosting over 60,000 Burundian refugees that was established in 2015. Both Burundi and Rwanda are classified as countries with an intermediate burden JAK-IN-1 of viral hepatitis B and C [14, 15]. In Burundi, the HBsAg prevalence has been estimated.
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