K2 represent the sample of patient K during the second episode of COVID-19. from the same COVID-19 database. Results Of 33 recurrent COVID-19 patients, 26 were female and 30 were HCW. Mean time to recurrence was 50.5 days which was associated with being a HCW (OR 36.4 ( 0.0001)), and blood type A (OR 4.8 (renfection, but in most cases the data do not formally distinguish between reinfection and re-emergence of a chronic infection reservoir. These episodes were significantly associated with reduced Ab response during initial disease and argue the need for ongoing vigilance without an assumption of protection after a first episode. viral sequence.7, 8, 9, 10 We report a case series of 33 patients with recurrence of COVID-19 symptoms and qRT-PCR positivity and SSTR5 antagonist 2 compared them with a control group of 62 patients with a single episode of COVID 19, in a case-control design. Additionally, we were able to compare viral genomes recovered in the first and second episodes for one of these cases. Methodology This study is a mix of observational case series and case-control studies; samples were obtained by agreement through the (CDR) of the (IPESADE-SE). Medical students follow up patient symptoms by phone every 24?h or 48?h, registering details online on the Platform and through the for this group were patients of any gender or age group 18 years who had a single episode of COVID-19 symptoms with a positive result for qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. for this group were patients without a qRT-PCR result or with negative qRT-PCR or with a history of a second episode of symptoms of COVID-19. All patients signed an informed consent form (ICF) confirming their participation in the study. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was performed for 17 (51.5%) recurrent disease patients in the first and second episode of symptoms of COVID-19, and 31 (50%) of the control group with a single episode. The test used the AFIAS COVID-19 Ab fluorescence immunoassay for IgM/IgG which is against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (NP) (Boditech Med Incorporated 43, Geodudanji 1-gil, Dongnae-myeon, Chuncheon-si, Gang-won-do, 24,398 Republic of Korea). This kit has a 100% sensitivity, and 96,7% specificity in clinical tests. The laboratory considered values higher than 1.1 positive, 0.9 to 1 1.1 indeterminate, and lower than 0.90 negative, for both IgG and IgM. Statistical analyses were performed using Jamovi Software (version 1.2). For comparison of continuous variables between the groups, the data were tested for normality, using D’Agostino and Pearson tests. Ages and titres of IgM and IgG between the groups were compared by Mann-Whitney Bglap U test. For the categorical data, the association of each variable with the groups were tested by calculating the Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the Fisher exact test. Complete viral genome sequences from specific cases were obtained with the Ion AmpliSeq? SARS-CoV-2 Research Panel, using the Ion S5 NGS platform (Thermo Fisher). Details on the virus amplification and sequencing protocols and all bioinformatics analyses are presented as Supplementary Methods. SARS-CoV-2 lineage assignments were performed with Pangolin11 and phylogenetic analysis of sequenced viral genomes was conducted using Nextstrain, described in supplementary methods.12 Results This study documents 33 patients who showed clear evidence of COVID-19 recurrence following an interval with recovery. Demographic and clinical data for each indivudal, including time interval between first and second episode and co-morbidities are supplied in Supplementary Table 1 and summarised medication data in Supplementary Table 2. Recurrence patients were mainly female, value?=?0.13. Data from the case-control study design are summarized in the Table?2 . No differences were observed between age and sex frequencies between the recurrent cases ( 0.0001 by Mann-Whitney U test). Antibody was tested in the recurrence SSTR5 antagonist 2 group at 2214 days after symptoms, and, although we do not have the exact time for the control group, it was annotated as 14 days in the database. IgG titres SSTR5 antagonist 2 in the recurrence group even after the second episode were still lower (6.38??11.34) than the control group (16.62??15.86); reinfection. Open in a separate window Fig. 1 Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes in patients with recurrent COVID-19. Phylogenetic (A) and genomic variant (B) analysis of viral genomes recovered from individuals with recurrent COVID-19. In.
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